Q: Who are considered illegitimate children?

A: Illegitimate children are those conceived and born outside the bounds of a legally recognized marriage.

Q: Under what circumstances can an illegitimate child use their father’s surname?

A: There are several situations when an illegitimate child can use their father’s surname:

  • The father has officially acknowledged the child in their birth record, which appears in the civil register.
  • The father has publicly admitted to the child’s filiation in a legal document.
  • The father has acknowledged the child in a private handwritten document.

Please note: It’s important to remember that a father retains the right to contest the filiation through a court proceeding during his lifetime.


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