Q: Who are illegitimate children?
A: Children conceived and born outside a valid marriage.
Q: In what instances may an illegitimate child use the surname of their father?
- Filiation has been Recognized by the father through the record of birth appearing in the civil register
- Admission in public document
- Private handwritten instrument is made by the father
Note: Provided that the father has the right to institute an action before the regular courts to prove non‐filiation during his lifetime.