Q: Who may adopt? 

  A:  1. Filipino; 

       2. Alien; 

       3. Guardian with respect to his ward.   

Q: What are the qualifications of a Filipino who  may adopt?   

A:  1. Must be of Legal age; 

     2. In a Position to care for his children; 

     3. Good moral character; 

     4. Full civil capacity and legal rights; 

     5. Not  been  Convicted  of  any  crime  involving moral turpitude; 

     6. Emotionally and psychologically capable  of caring for children; 

     7.  At  least  16  years  older  than  adoptee.  Except It is not necessary that adopter be  at least 16 years older: 

      a. Adopter is the biological parent of  the adoptee, 

      b. Adopter is the spouse of adoptee’s  parent.   

Q: What are the qualifications of an alien who  may adopt under R.A. 8552?   

A: 1. Possesses Same qualifications as those  enumerated for Filipino adopters; 

    2. His  country  has  Diplomatic  relations  with the Philippines; 

    3. Has been living in the Philippines  for at least 3 continuous years prior to  the  application  for  adoption  and  maintains such residence until adoption  decree has been entered.   


a. He is a former Filipino who seeks  to adopt a relative within the 4th  civil  degree  of  consanguinity  or  affinity, 

b. He  is  married  to  a  Filipino  and  seeks  to  adopt  jointly  with  his  spouse  a  relative  within  the  4th  degree of consanguinity or affinity, 
c. He  is  married  to  a  Filipino  and  seeks  to  adopt  the  legitimate  or  illegitimate  child  of  his  filipino  spouse. 

Q: How may a guardian adopt his ward?   

A:  A  guardian  may  only  adopt  his  ward  after  termination of guardianship and clearance of his  financial accountabilities.    Q: What is the rule when a person seeking to  adopt has a spouse?   

A:  Such person must adopt with his spouse  jointly. The general rule is that husband and  wife shall jointly adopt.   

Except   1. One  spouse  seeks  to  adopt  the  legitimate child of the other; 

              2. One  spouse  seeks  to  adopt  his  own  illegitimate child; 

               3. Spouses are legally separated. 

Q: Who may be adopted?   
A:  1. Any person below 18 of age who has  been  administratively  or  judicially  declared available for adoption; 
2. Legitimate child of one spouse by the  other spouse; 
3. Illegitimate child by a qualified adopter  to improve the status of said child to  that of legitimacy; 
4. Person  of  legal  age,  if  prior  to  the  adoption,  said  person  has  been   consistently considered and treated by  adopters as their child since minority; 
5. Child  whose  adoption  has  been  previously rescinded; 
6. Child  whose  biological  parents  have  died  provided  no  proceedings  have  been  initiated  within  6  months  from time of death. 

Q: What is the definition of “child”?   

A: A child is any person below 18 years old.   

Q: What is the definition of “child legally free for  adoption”?   

A: A child voluntarily or involuntarily committed  to  the  DSWD,  freed  of  his  biological  parents,  guardians, adopters in case of rescission.   

Q:  Whose  written  consent  is  necessary  for  adoption?   

A:   1. Adoptee, if 10 years of age and over; 

      2. Biological parents of the child, if known  or  the  legal  guardian,  or  the  proper  government instrumentality which has  legal custody of the child; 

      3. Legitimate children of the adopter, if 10  years old or over; 

      4. Illegitimate children of the adopter, if  10 years old or over and living with him; 

      5. Spouse of the adopted, if married; 

      6. Spouse of the adopter, if married. 

Q: Who are illegitimate children?   

A: Children conceived and born outside a valid  marriage.   

Q: In what instances may an illegitimate child  use the surname of their father?   

  1.  Filiation  has  been  Recognized  by  the  father  through  the  record  of  birth  appearing in the civil register
  2.  Admission in public document 
  3.  Private handwritten instrument is made  by the father   

Note:  Provided  that  the  father  has  the  right  to  institute an action before the regular courts to prove  non‐filiation during his lifetime. 

Q: What is marriage? 

A: Marriage is a special contract of permanent  union between a man and a woman entered into  in accordance with law for the establishment of  conjugal and family life. It is the foundation of the  family and an inviolable social institution whose  nature,  consequences,  and  incidents  are  governed by law and not subject to stipulation,  except  that  marriage  settlements  may  fix  the  property relations during the marriage within the  limits provided by the Family Code. (Art. 1, FC) 

  Q: Is breach of promise to marry an actionable  wrong? 

  A:   No, a breach of promise to marry perse in not  an actionable wrong. There is no provision of the  Civil  Code  authorizing  an  action  for  breach  of  promise to marry.     Exept , when  the  act  is  not  a  mere  breach  of  promise  to  marry  but  constitutes  one  where  damages pursuant to Art. 21 of the Civil Code may  be recovered, such as:    1. Where the woman is a victim of moral  seduction.  (Gashem  Shookat  Baksh  v.  CA, G.R. No. 97336, February 19, 1993)    2. Where one formally sets a wedding and  go  through  and  spend  for  all  the  preparations and publicity, only to walk  out  of  it  when  the  matrimony  was  about  to  be  solemnized.(  Wassmer  v.  Velez, G.R. No. L‐20089 , December 26,  1964) 

Yes.Even in the suspension of the Usury Law and the elimination of interest ceilings, the parties are usually unrestrained to specify the interest rates to be enforced on financial obligations. As a general rule, the interest rate acknowledged by the creditor and the debtor are valid upon them. This rule, however, is not without exception.
Currently, the Supreme Court once again dealt with the validity of interest acknowledged by the parties, declaring that:
Stipulated interest rates are illegal if they are unconscionable and the Court is allowed to temper interest rates when necessary. In exercising this vested power to determine what is iniquitous and unconscionable, the Court must consider the circumstances of each case. What may be iniquitous and unconscionable in one case, may be just in another.

In your case, 100 % interest per annum is considered unconscionable and  illegal.

Yes your boss is liable for sexual harrasment and you are  a victim of sexual harassment in the workplace regardless of your refusal to give in to perform the sexual favor.

Section 3 of Republic Act (RA) 7877 or the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 provides:
“SECTION 3. Work, Education or Training -Related, Sexual Harassment Defined. – Work, education or training-related sexual harassment is committed by an employer, employee, manager, supervisor, agent of the employer, teacher, instructor, professor, coach, trainor or any other person who, having authority, influence or moral ascendancy over another in a work or training or education environment, demands, requests or otherwise requires any sexual favor from the other, regardless of whether the demand, request or requirement for submission is accepted by the object of said Act.
(a) In a work-related or employment environment, sexual harassment is committed when:
(1) The sexual favor is made as a condition in the hiring or in the employment, re-employment or continued employment of said individual, or in granting said individual favorable compensation, terms of conditions, promotions or privileges; or the refusal to grant the sexual favor results in limiting, segregating or classifying the employee which in any way would discriminate, deprive or diminish employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect said employee;
Based on your short narration it evidently, it appears that you are suffering from discrimination as well as the diminution of your benefits subsequent to your refusal to go out on a date with your boss. Hence, your boss may be held under the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act.

Yes. Obligation to support stemming from marriage is a legal right on the part of the spouse who needs it, and it may not be rejected other than in cases provided by law. In such cases like when the wife leaves the home or refuses to live therein, without just reason.
Mere separation by the spouses will not abrogate or restrain the legal right to support, which is patently provided by law.
The fact that your wife left you because of your infidelity, is not enough cause to deny her of her right to receive support, you must show that she left your home without just cause.

Yes, the City Government is legally responsible for the injuries provided that it has control and supervision over the road where the manhole is located. Under Article 2189 of the Civil Code of the Philippines states:
“Art. 2189. Provinces, cities and municipalities shall be liable for damages for the death of, or injuries suffered by, any person by reason of the defective condition of roads, streets, bridges, public buildings and other public works under their control and supervision.”
This law unquestionably forces the City Government that has control and supervision over the road where the open manhole is situated.
Ownership of the faulty manhole or other public works is not necessary as the law only needs that the LGU should exercise control and supervision over the same. Accordingly, the basic requirements to hold the LGU liable for damages are: (i) the control and supervision of the local government unit in the defective public works; and, (ii) the injuries sustained by an individual that was caused by the defective public works.

Yes. According to your brief narration, you are engaged in the crime of cybersex, a violation of Section 4(C)(1) of Republic Act (RA) 10175 or the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012.
Law states that:
“Section 4. Cybercrime Offenses.—The following acts constitute the offense of cybercrime punishable under this Act:
x x x
c) Content-related Offenses:
x x x
(1) Cybersex.—The willful engagement, maintenance, control or operation, directly or indirectly, of any lascivious exhibition of sexual organs or sexual activity, with the aid of a computer system, for favor or consideration.”
Based on words of the law, you obviously knowingly and willingly engaged in the lewd exhibition of your sexual parts using a webcam in return for the pecuniary benefit given to you by the viewers then that is equivalent to a crime under RA 10175.
It is essential to distinguish between consensual cybersex vis-à-vis cyber prostitution as the latter involves the component of favor or consideration in exchange for the lascivious exhibition of a sexual organ or activity.


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